It is bordered to the north and east by the Mediterranean Sea, west by Algeria with 965 kilometers of common border and southeast by Libya with 459 kilometers of border. Its capital Tunis is in the northeast of the country, in the Gulf of Tunis. Over 30% of the territory of the area is occupied by the Sahara desert, the rest are mountainous and fertile plains, home of the Carthaginian civilization which reached its apogee in the third century BC. AD before becoming a province of the Roman Empire.
Long known as "Regency of Tunis", especially under the Ottoman Empire, Tunisia was under French protectorate May 12, 1881 with the signing of the Treaty of Bardo. With the advent of independence, on 20 March 1956, the country is moving in the beginning to the status of a constitutional monarchy whose sovereign Lamine Bey, nineteenth and last bey reigning dynasty Husseinites. With the proclamation of the Republic on 25 July 1957, the nationalist leader Habib Bourguiba became the first president of the Tunisian Republic and modernizing the country. However, in 1987, after thirty years as head of the country whose end is marked by patronage and the rise of Islamism, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali finally the file, but continues since the main objectives of the "Bourguibism" while liberalizing the economy. After 23 years of authoritarian and police presidency, characterized by the importance of Ben Ali's corruption chased January 14, 2011 by a popular revolution. Finding refuge in Saudi Arabia, specifically in Jeddah is the subject with his wife Leila Ben Ali, an international arrest warrant.
Integrated with the main bodies of the international community such as the UN or the International Criminal Court, Tunisia is also part of the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the Greater Arab Free Trade, the Organisation of Islamic cooperation, the Union for the Mediterranean, the African Union, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Group of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States and the non-aligned movement. Tunisia has also concluded an association agreement with the European Union and obtained the status key ally outside NATO.